The term “information warfare” might call to mind Russian trolls exploiting social media, but there has always been a lot more to it than disinformation campaigns on Twitter, or for that matter the airborne propaganda leaflets or Tokyo Roses of wars gone by. Information warfare, or IW, is a key element of every military operation. It spans cyberspace and the electromagnetic spectrum, involving communications of all kinds such as Global Positioning System readings and satellite operations, as well as economic transactions, every level of surveillance, and old-school radio and TV. […]