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Functions and administrative tasks related to system or network access, including user identification and access recording.
Routing that automatically adjusts to network changes; such shifts in network traffic; to find the most efficient path for transmission.
Asset tracking technical information about the equipment or software portfolio information acquisition and financial details. A contract database summarizing key licensing and maintenance contract terms and conditions.
A category of tools that collect physical data on an enterprise's networked IT assets(such as memory; processor and software version); and record a history of changes made to the asset. The data collected by these tools is typically reconciled and fed into a repository for reporting; or it is often accessed by the IT service desk for rapiduser profile identification.
A function that automates most basic form of storage availability recoverable data. Replaces labor-intensive departmental data backup processes with automated, enterprise-level solutions to increase availability.
A form of e-commerce conducted among businesses, typically because of formal, contractual arrangements.
A general term for the category of applications that support non-customer-facing core enterprise functions. Examples include enterprise resource planning (ERP), supply chain management (SCM), and human-resource systems.
The range of frequencies that can pass over a given transmission channel. Determines the rate at which information can be transmitted throughthe circuit: the greater the bandwidth, the more information that can be sent in a given amount of time. Bandwidth is typically measured in bits per second. Increasing bandwidth potential has become a high priority for network planners due to the growth of multimedia, including videoconferencing and the increased use of the Internet.
A term used to denote applications that offer superior functionality to serve specificfunctions, as compared those that offer numerous functions bundled within an application suite. Enterprises often purchase software from different vendors to obtain the best-of-breed offering for each application area. For example, enterprises may purchase a sales force automation package from one vendor and a customer service package from another.
Technologies that analyze and measure biological and behavioral characteristics of individuals, typically for identification or authentication purposes.
An interconnection of two or more computer systems, terminals, or communications facilities.
A broad term referring to applications and processes for managing Web, document, and e-commerce-focused content.
CRM (Customer Relationship Management)
A business strategy designed to optimize profitability, revenue, and customer satisfaction by organizing the enterprise around customer segments, fostering customer-centric behavior and implementing customer-centric processes. CRM optimized through Web channels is known as e-channel CRM (e-CRM).
DNS (Domain Name System)
The system that serves as the map between logical names and network addresses in an Internet Protocol (IP) network.
Desktop Management Services
The management and optimization of an enterprise's distributed desktop and associated network environment as opposed to a stand-alone PC or workstation environment.
A form of computing in which data and applications are distributed among disparate computers or systems, but are connected and integrated by means of network services and interoperability standards so that they function as a single environment.
Electronic business. Any Internet-enabled business activity that transforms internal and external relationships to create value and exploit market opportunities driven by the new rules of the "connected economy."
Electronic commerce. The use of information and communication technologies to transmit business information and transact business. The term is most commonly associated with Internet-based commerce, but this is only one of several advanced forms of e-commerce that use technology, integrated applications, and business processes to link enterprises.
A set of applications and business-to-business information management processes that support the purchase of goods and services over the Internet.
Enterprise Application Software
The software market category comprising enterprise application packages used to automate back-office and front-office operations. These include traditional enterprise resource planning (ERP), customer relationship management (CRM), and supply chain management (SCM) applications.
Equipment Asset Management
The optimal acquisition, deployment, and use of enterprise IT equipment assets, such as hardware and peripherals, to reduce total cost of ownership and improve efficiency. EAM and software asset management (SAM) are among the components of an enterprise IT asset management (ITAM) discipline.
Enterprise Business Intelligence Suite
A suite that offers multiple styles of common business intelligence functionality, including ad hoc query, reporting, charting, online analytical processing (OLAP), and trend analysis.
A collaborative, Internet-based network that facilitates intercompany relationships by linking an enterprise with its suppliers, customers, or other external business partners. Extranets use Internet-derived applications and technology to provide secured extensions of internal business processes to external business partners.
FCC (Federal Communications Commission)
The U.S. federal agency responsible for regulating interstate telecommunications; as well as international telecommunications; aspects of cellular communications and broadcasting. The FCC was established by the Communications Act of 1934.
FIPS (Federal Information Processing Standard)
A set of specifications produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology for the U.S. federal government. FIPS specifications address communications, encryption, interoperability, hardware and other technical areas. Information Technology Security for the U.S. Federal government falls into the following broad categories.
A network technology that transmits data packets at high speeds across a digital network encapsulated in a transmission unit called a frame. It requires a dedicated connection during the transmission period. It is used on wide area networks and also in private network environments with leased lines over T1 lines. Frame relay is faster than traditional networks; because it was designed for today's reliable circuits and performs less rigorous error detection. When circuits are less reliable; a great deal of network traffic is dedicated solely to correcting errors.
An application or an entire computer (e.g.; an Internet gateway server) that controls access to a network and monitors the flow of network traffic. A firewall can screen and keep out unwanted network traffic and ward off outside intrusion into a private network. This is particularly important when a local network connects to the Internet. Firewalls have become critical applications as use of the Internet has increased.
A server designed to transform data streams to better match device capabilities. For example; Wireless Application Protocol gateway servers convert Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) to Wireless Markup Language for wireless devices; and a number of products can reformat HTML for devices such as mobile phones and personal digital assistants. Today; HTML-based gateway servers predominate. While HTML can be made aware of a unique device requesting content; more often ""shadow"" Web server applications are created to draw off and reformat the native content.
Approximately one billion bits of data (1;073;741;824; to be exact). Also known as Gb.
A service delivery model in which work is performed by a virtual team; which may consist of personnel that are on-site; domestic; nearshore or offshore.
Describes a contract that defines the vendor's contribution to the customer in terms of specific benefits to the customer's business. Such a contract also defines the payment the customer will make according to the vendor's performance in delivering these benefits. Gain-sharing contracts require the development of a delivery paradigm that links a customer's business metrics to a vendor's IT solution. Key elements of this paradigm include: * Business metric definition and selection * Client metric benchmarking * Development of key performance indicators * Investment options evaluation * Gain-sharing * Contract development * Financial engineering * Delivery of services * Re-evaluation and adjustment of metrics
Geographically Dispersed Parallel Sysplex
An IBM mainframe feature for continuous availability and disaster recovery across multiple; geographically dispersed sites. Also known as GDPS.
"Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999 Signed into U.S. law in November 1999; this legislation also known as the "Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act;" after the senators who sponsored it allowed many financial institutions to engage in a broader spectrum of activities; but also placed additional restrictions on many of their practices; notably those related to privacy. The act established an "affirmative and continuing obligation" for FSPs to respect their customers' privacy; and to protect the confidentiality of their information an aspect of the legislation that had a major impact on FSPs' customer information management practices and strategies." Also known as FMA99.
Technology that performs pattern matching to convert handwritten letters into computer-recognizable text characters. The two subfields are static recognition of handwritten documents such as forms; and dynamic recognition of real-time handwriting for devices such as personal digital assistants.
HDTV (High-Definition Television)
High-definition television. A high-resolution; wide-screen video format. HDTV images contain roughly twice the number of vertical and horizontal lines compared to conventional television images.
Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set
A set of standardized performance measures designed to provide purchasers and consumers with the information they need to reliably compare healthcare organizations' performance. HEDIS 99 contains measures that cover disease prevention and acute or chronic care across a full range of healthcare settings; such as physicians' offices; clinics and hospitals. Also known as HEDIS.
Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society. An industry association that offers a variety of publications; educational programs and services related to healthcare information systems. Its members contribute to the development of such technologies as telemedicine; computer-based patient records; community health information networks and portable/wireless healthcare computing.
High-Level Data Link Control
A bit-oriented data link protocol developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). One of the most commonly used protocols in the data link layer (Layer 2) of the ISO's Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference platform; HDLC adds data link control information to a transmitted frame of data. Variations of HDLC are used in X.25 and frame relay networks.
The primary or controlling system in a multiple-computer network operation. Typically; the term specifically denotes a network-connected computer that hosts services; facilities or applications used by the other computers or terminals on the same network. For example; a Web host is a computer on which a Web site's pages are stored.
A central device; usually in a star topology local-area network; to which each station's wiring is attached; also called a wiring concentrator.
Text that uses links to provide navigation among Web pages or documents. When the text is "clicked on;" it can enable a user to navigate within or between Web pages.
Internet Protocol address. A unique number assigned by an Internet authority that identifies a computer on the Internet; or on any other network that uses Internet Protocol (IP). It consists of four groups of numbers between 0 and 255; separated by periods (dots). For example; 220.127.116.11 is an IP address.
IT Asset Management
A systematic approach to managing IT assets throughout their life cycle; from procurement through retirement and disposal.
A database design that obviates the complexities of multilevel stores posed by traditional relational database management systems (RDBMSs). This design begins with the assumption that all data is resident in memory. In an in-memory database; pointers point directly to the data and do not need to be translated to disk addresses and blocks. This technology bolsters database performance for embedded applications; and for tactical requirements where performance gains can be traded off against traditional RDBMS strengths.
Initial Graphics Exchange Specification
A standard for the exchange of computer-aided design (CAD) geometry. It provides a vendor-neutral method of representing parts; geometric renderings and product dimensions; and is used as an intermediate system for transfer between specific CAD products. IGES has been largely superseded by Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP). Also knwon as IGES.
Job Control Language
A language used to communicate with IBM's Multiple Virtual Storage (MVS) operating system. JCL is used to tell the system who a user is; what programs are being invoked and what resources will be needed.
A standard for still-image compression.
The heart of an operating system. The kernel is the part of the operating system that interconnects with the hardware.
Key Telephone System
A telephone system that enables a user to directly access outgoing and incoming central office (CO) facilities by simply pushing a button or "key" on a telephone unlike a private branch exchange (PBX) telephone system; in which this access can to be achieved by dialing an access code. A key telephone set is characterized by having multiple line buttons; a "hold" button and at least one button dedicated for making internal; station-to-station (intercom) calls. Hold and intercom buttons are typically used to place a call on hold so that the call can be "announced" over the intercom line before being distributed to the person for whom the call is intended.
A unit of electrical power; equal to 1;000 watts. Also known as KW.
A self-service terminal typically used for one of three functions: to support noncash transactions (such as ordering tickets or making reservations); to dispense noncash items (such as documents; tickets or coupons); or to provide access to information (such as rate quotations; product information or interactive sessions with product specialists). Kiosks typically do not dispense cash.
A group of people within an enterprise who engage in knowledge-sharing activities in support of a common work interest (such as shared responsibility for a business process; a product or service; or a project). The knowledge community may include people from multiple disciplines within the enterprise; as well as extended-enterprise participants (such as service providers; supply chain partners or customers).
Knowledge Management Infastructure
The people; processes and automated systems required to support knowledge management.
A work environment that focuses on knowledge as the primary source of competitive advantage. The knowledge workplace represents the intersection of three key trends: the leverage of intellectual capital; the virtualization of the workplace and the shift from hierarchical to organic models of management.
A portion of the electromagnetic spectrum used increasingly for satellite communications; with frequencies in the 12- to 14-gigahertz range.
LOB (Line of Business)
A corporate subdivision focused on a single product or family of products.
Between 3;000 and 100;000 transistors on a chip.
A storage medium that uses laser technology to record and retrieve data.
A dedicated circuit; typically supplied by the telephone company or transmission authority; that permanently connects two or more user locations and is for the sole use of the subscriber. Also called a private line; tie line or dedicated facility.
Term used to describe enterprise applications or systems installed in the distant past; but still being used. Typically; they are characterized by outdated technologies; but are still critical to day-to-day operations. Replacing legacy applications and systems with systems based on new and different technologies is one of the IS professional's most significant challenges. As enterprises upgrade or change their technologies; they must ensure compatibility with old systems and data formats that are still in use.
A version of Unix developed by Linus Torvalds; who sought to champion openness and counter the closed nature of vendor-proprietary operating systems. The Linux credo says that the software must be made available as open-source code; enabling anyone to read the coding rules and submit improvements. The source code is accessible free on the Web or is otherwise virtually given away; and vendors derive their revenue from utilities and support.
LAN (Local-area network)
A form of client/server computing in which the database management system or file management system executes on a different computer than the rest of the application logic.
A supply network that; like a computer network; can be configured by different hubs; routers and transmission lines. (The logistics network corollaries are warehouses; replenishment rules and trucking companies.) Tools exist to model and optimize the performance of the network. These systems rationalize and quantify the role of each warehouse in satisfying corporate objectives.
MP3 (MPEG Layer 3)
MPEG Layer 3. An open Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) standard for digital audio compression. It offers significant compression while retaining good to excellent audio quality. Files compressed with MP3 can be transmitted over the Internet using a low-bandwidth connection. Standard; uncompressed audio � as recorded on a compact disc (CD) � requires about 740 megabytes for a 74-minute CD. MP3 can compress this data size by approximately 12 to 1. The size and quality of MP3 files varies depending on the sampling rate used in conversion. A rate of 128 kilobits per second (Kbps) results in an MP3 file that is approximately one megabyte per minute of music; with near-CD-quality audio. Dropping the sampling rate to 80 Kbps or 64 Kbps results in smaller files with audio quality that is reasonable; but inferior to that of a CD.
MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System)
The version of Disk Operating System (DOS) sold by Microsoft for early IBM and compatible personal computers (PCs). Until the introduction of Windows; MS-DOS was the most popular PC operating system. Versions sold by IBM were known as "PC-DOS."
Approximately one million bits of computer data (1;048;576; to be precise). Also known as Mb.
MOM (Message-Oriented Middleware)
A model that programs the delivery of a message or a reply that must be deferred. MOM differs from other forms of program-to-program middleware; such as remote procedure calls (RPCs) and conversational services; in that MOM communication is connectionless the sending and receiving programs do not interact directly. A program sends the message to the MOM; which then takes responsibility for delivering it to the proper receivers.
A category of commerce that includes any purchase transaction completed using a wireless device; such as a cellular phone; PC or personal digital assistant. Mobile commerce includes paying for a subscription to get content "pushed" to a mobile device; purchasing a product via a mobile device or using such a device to obtain a service for which a fee is charged. Purchases that are researched or arranged via a wireless device; but completed and settled by other means; are classified as mobile-enabled transactions.
A conversion device that allows a computer to transmit information over analog communication lines (for example; traditional phone lines) by converting information that is digitally stored on the computer into transmission signals. The transmitting-end modem modulates digital signals received locally from a computer or terminal and sends analog signals over the line. The receiving-end modem demodulates the incoming signal; converting it back to its original (i.e.; digital) format and passes it to the destination business machine.
A computer's primary printed circuit board (PCB); also known as the system board.
Applications and technologies that manipulate multiple media types; such as text; data; images; sound and full-motion-video. Given the use of multiple formats; multimedia is capable of delivering a stronger and more engaging message than standard text. Multimedia files are typically larger than text-based information and are therefore usually stored on CD-ROMs. Games and educational software commonly use multimedia.
A practice (also known as selective outsourcing) in which separate outsourcing contracts are established for selected IT functions or business processes using a best-of-breed; tactical approach and competitive deals. This is the most commonly used approach for IT sourcing.
Communications bandwidth that is narrower than broadband; typically; voice grade or lower.
Any number of computers (such as PCs and servers) and devices (such as printers and modems) joined together by physical or wireless communications links. In the enterprise context; networks allow information to be passed between computers; regardless of where those computers are located. Networks provide the roads for information traffic (such as sending files and e-mail) within a corporate environment; and allow users to access databases and share applications residing on servers. If a network does not go outside of a company building; or campus; then it is known as a local-area network (LAN). If it has a bridge to other outside networks; usually via lines owned by public telecommunications carriers like AT&T; then it is known as a wide-area network (WAN).
Network File System
A method of sharing files across a computer network. Pioneered by Sun Microsystems; it is now a de facto standard in the Unix environment. NFS is built on Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and Ethernet.
A client/server application architecture with dynamic application deployment; execution and management. Network computing is characterized by four properties: dynamic cached propagation; "write once; run anywhere" operation; automatic platform adjustment and network context storage.
Network Operations Center
A Web-hosting term which refers to the "central nervous system" of the data center. Without it; there would be no infrastructure to transport data to the Web. All Tier 1 Internet service providers and many major telecommunications companies have developed; or are developing; NOCs
Measures taken to protect a communications network from unauthorized access to; and accidental or willful interference of; regular operations.
Object-Oriented Database Management System
A database management system (DBMS) that applies concepts of object-oriented programming. An OODBMS manages persistent objects on behalf of multiple users; and offers capabilities for security; integrity; recovery and contention management.
An outsourcing term describing the provision of services from a country that is geographically remote from the client enterprises for example; services provided to a U.S. enterprise from a service provider located in India.
Open Applications Group
Open Applications Group. An Atlanta-based; nonprofit consortium which develops standards for e-business software interoperability and integration.
Describes software that comes with permission to use; copy and distribute it; either as is or with modifications; and that may be offered either free or with a charge. The source code must be made available.
1. A temporary electrical connection. 2. A software fix made or distributed in a quick and expedient way typically; via a separate piece of software that users can download and run to modify an application already installed on their computers.
Performance management is the combination of management methodologies; metrics and IT (applications; tools and infrastructure) that enable users to define; monitor and optimize results and outcomes to achieve personal or departmental objectives while enabling alignment with strategic objectives across multiple organizational levels (personal; process; group; departmental; corporate or business ecosystem).
A hardware or software architecture; or an operating system.
A program that uses a Web browser's application programming interface. Each plug-in is browser- and platform-specific. Plug-ins are stored locally; on the same machine as the browser. The best-known plug-ins are those that allow the display or playback of special file types (such as animation; audio or video) directly in the browser window.
Programming Language 1
An early scientific programming language.
Public Key Cryptography Standards
A set of security standards from RSA Security. PKCS standards define the cryptographic processes needed to carry out encrypted exchanges between entities.
Quality of Service
A negotiated contract between a user and a network provider that renders some degree of reliable capacity in the shared network.
A request for information placed to a computer system or database. Queries may be performed by human beings (for example; a Web user entering a query into a search engine); but are also commonly performed by computers themselves (for example; a program placing an automated query to a database).
1. Any series of data streams; such as a print queue; waiting to access a device. 2. In telephony; a series of telephone calls awaiting handling by an operator or agent.
Rapid Application Development
An application development approach that includes small teams (typically two to six people; but never more than 10) using joint application development (JAD) and iterative-prototyping techniques to construct interactive systems of low to medium complexity within a time frame of 60 to 120 days.
Data stored in computer memory that can be accessed and read by the user; but not modified. ROM is often permanent; and stores system control software.
1. Portion of the total information contained in a message that can be eliminated without loss of essential information. 2. Provision of duplicate; backup equipment or links that immediately take over the function of equipment or transmission lines that fail.
A server that facilitates network connections to an enterprise local-area or wide-area network from users remotely accessing the network over cable or telephone lines using a modem. The server uses various protocols to authenticate and connect remote users. It may have multiple network interfaces and include integrated bridging or routing. Remote access servers are customer premises equipment; although they can be bought and used by small Internet service providers.
A file format that encodes documents so their messages include boldface; italics and other limited text styles across platforms and applications. Differences exist between implementations by Lotus and Microsoft.
A search for available cellular-network carriers performed by mobile phone.
A table used by a network switch or router to determine the preferred path for a message to take to reach a given destination on the network.
Technology that applies a collection of rules to captured information to deduce or infer new information; using an interface engine. Applications include medical diagnosis; insurance underwriting; regulatory compliance and customer service.
The measure of a system's ability to increase or decrease in performance and cost in response to changes in application and system-processing demands. Examples would include how well a hardware system performs when the number of users is increased; how well a database withstands growing numbers of queries; or how well an operating system performs on different classes of hardware. Enterprises that are growing rapidly should pay special attention to scalability when evaluating hardware and software.
A feature of data-conferencing and other real-time collaboration technologies that enables multiple users to view the same document or computer screen simultaneously. Unlike application sharing; screen sharing allows only one user; rather than multiple users; to control the screen or document.
A term describing a sequential flow of bits over a single pathway.
A system or a program that receives requests from one or more client systems or programs to perform activities that allow the client to accomplish certain tasks. The term usually denotes computers that provide specific services to other computers on a network. Routing servers connect subnetworks of like architecture; gateway servers connect networks of different architectures by performing protocol conversions; and terminal; print and file servers provide interfaces between peripheral devices and systems on the network.
The pooling of server resources in a way that masks the physical nature and boundaries of those resources from users or administrators.
An agreement that sets the expectations between a service provider and its customer. It describes the products or services to be delivered; the single point of contact for end-user problems and the metrics by which the effectiveness of the process is monitored and approved.
The use of a mathematical or computer representation of a physical system for the purpose of studying the effects of various condition scenarios; or forecasting outcomes. For example; historical information may be used to simulate future alternatives for supply chain operations design.
A large-screen; voice-centric handheld device designed to offer complete phone functions while simultaneously functioning as a personal digital assistant (PDA).
Any process that permits the passage of information from a sender to one or more receivers in any usable form (such as printed copy; fixed or moving pictures; and visible or audible signals) by means of any electromagnetic system (such as electrical transmission by wire; radio or optical transmission). It includes telegraphy; telephony; video-telephony and data transmission.
A subsystem that ensures that all transactions against a database leave it in a consistent state or; in case of a transaction failure; returns the database to its pre-transaction state.
A device that transmits a signal in response to a received signal. Communications satellites usually contain several transponders.
A IBM brand name applied to several of its DB2 database management system products (for example; DB2 UDB for S/390; and DB2 UDB for Unix and Windows).
An operating system originally designed by Bell Laboratories in 1969. Since that time; Unix has undergone a multitude of upgrades and enhancements; and has proven to be adaptable to a variety of platforms. It has become a leading operating system for servers and high-end workstations because of its scalability and support of complex processing.
User Datagram Protocol
A Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) technology that enables an application to send a message to one of several applications running in a destination machine. UDP is stateless it differentiates sources and destinations within hosts and provides no other services. Often services do not use predefined port numbers; so filtering on the basis of "well-known ports" will not work. See TCP/IP.
An organization that buys equipment from a vendor at a discount; adds value (such as application software packaged and sold with underlying system software) and remarkets it.
Communication by individuals or groups using systems that support image; voice and data transfer over digital networks or telephone circuits. Videoconferencing systems can take the form of large; dedicated units for group meetings or can be integrated with desktop personal computers.
VoIP (Voice Over IP)
Transmission of voice communications over Internet Protocol (IP) data networks; such as IP-based LANs; intranets or the Internet. Many carriers offer integrated services such as voice and data over a single "pipe." However; VoIP still poses several concerns such as voice quality; traffic congestion; slow acceptance of standards; regulatory ambiguity and potential lack of future demand.
A computer's ability to convert spoken input into text; or to interpret spoken commands (also known as or "automatic speech recognition" or "voice recognition"). Special software is used to digitize vocal sounds and compares them to a library of sound patterns. When matches are found; the computer can recognize those words as though they had been typed on a keyboard. Applications for speech recognition include dictation software and interactive voice response (IVR) systems. The technology generally falls into three categories along a continuum: * Command systems were the earliest and simplest form; the computer learns a small number of voice commands like ""open file"" or ""print document;"" freeing the user from having to use a keyboard or mouse to perform those tasks. * Discrete speech recognition; the second stage in this evolution; can be used for dictation and other natural speaking conditions; but pauses are required between words. * Continuous speech recognition software is emerging today. These systems understand natural speech without pauses; and their vocabularies and accuracy will continue to expand and improve.
The distance between the crests of a wave in a radio signal; measured as the speed of light divided by the frequency in hertz (Hz).
A service in which a vendor offers the housing of Web sites via vendor-owned shared or dedicated servers and applications at the provider-controlled facilities. The vendor is responsible for all day-to-day operations and maintenance of the Web site. The customer is responsible for the site's content.
WAN (Wide-Area Network)
A communications network that connects computing devices over geographically dispersed locations. While a local-area network (LAN) typically spans a single building or location; a WAN covers a much larger area such as a city; state or country. WANs can use either phone lines or dedicated communication lines.
WLAN (Wireless Local-Area Network)
A LAN communication technology in which radio; microwave or infrared links take the place of physical cables. Three physical media types of WLAN are available. The first two direct-sequence spread spectrum (see DSSS) and frequency-hopping spread spectrum (see FHSS) are based on radio technologies that are not interoperable. The third is based on infrared; a nonradio technology based on light waves. Infrared can coexist with DSSS and FHSS radio-based systems in one enterprise network. However; Internet working issues between access points prevent an enterprise from mixing and matching WLAN devices from multiple vendors. WLAN standards include IEEE 802.11 and HIPERLAN/2 (see separate entries). Currently; two versions of the IEEE standard prevail: 802.11b (Wi-Fi); offering up to 11 megabits per second (Mbps); and 802.11a (Wi-Fi5); offering up to 54 Mbps. Although WLANs can be found in corporate environments; a number of service providers are offering commercial services in "hot spots;" such as airline lounges and coffee bars.
WAG (Wireless Application Gateway)
A server-based gateway that provides wireless access to enterprise applications. WAGs plug into the enterprise's application infrastructure; separating the data from the presentation layer and avoiding redundant development efforts. Leading WAGs provide secure access to any data source and the ability to render the data to any device; such as a personal digital assistant; wireless telephone; pager or desktop computer. A WAG server can be deployed either as an internal platform installed within the enterprise; or as an outsourced platform hosted by a third party operating as a service bureau.
A catch-all term for the emerging category of vendors such as application service providers (ASPs) and business service providers (BSPs) that use a network-based; "pay as you go" service delivery model.
An 8-bit; public-domain error-checking protocol developed in the late 1970s. The file transfer protocol uses a 128-byte data block and cyclic redundancy check (CRC) or checksum error checking.
Year 2000. The Y2K problem was the result of an industry practice that for more than 35 years had represented years in dates as only two digits; assuming in application logic that the first two digits of the year are ""19."" A variety of errors were introduced once such applications had to deal with dates beyond 31 December 1999. For the government; fixing the Y2K problem before the year 2000 became a major concern and a lot of money was spend to fix the situation. There has been a lot of debate over whether they money was well spent; or if it would have been a better use of time to fix the issues as they were discovered once the year 200 passed. Such a debate is not easily resolved; it is IS likely that the work helped keep some important systems from crashing.
A company based in Sunnyvale; California; that offers Web search; online-information; e-mail; instant-messaging and other Internet-related services.
Year 2000 Compliance
Confirmation that applications are free from the year 2000 problem; i.e.; that they do not abnormally end or produce erroneous results as the result of incorrectly interpreting the year 2000 as "00" due to the use of only two digits to represent the year. Such compliance was a major system concern in the late 1990s; as the year 2000 approached.
IBM's 64-bit mainframe product line; which includes its z800; z900 and z990 mainframe servers. The zSeries products are a re-branding of; and major upgrade to; IBM's S/390-class mainframe computers.
The removal of delays in the movement of information; data or goods.
The principle form of file-by-file data compression in the Windows environment.